Appendix Exhibit A7 presents the total outcomes of our sensitiveness analyses for borrowers more than age sixty-five

We discovered tiny but significant increases in payday amount among the list of older borrowers

As noted above, we examined pay day loan volume stratified for folks for the reason that age bracket along with performing a triple-difference analysis of county-month-age (younger or more than age sixty-five). We had triple-difference estimates that were roughly similar, though slightly larger in magnitude, than the difference-in-differences estimates in Exhibit 1 when we used those borrowers as an additional within-state control group. This suggests that our main estimates might be slight underestimates of the effects of Medicaid expansion on payday loan volume to the extent that the effects on the older population captured unobserved, latent trends in expansion counties.

As stated above, the key presumption in the difference-in-differences framework by which we relied is the fact that California’s expansion counties and all sorts of associated with nonexpansion counties will have shown comparable styles when you look at the lack of the expansion. That presumption will be violated, as an example, if Ca had skilled an uniquely robust job-market data recovery throughout the research duration. Having said that, we have been conscious of no proof that the job-market data data recovery in Ca had been not the same as the data data data recovery various other states in a manner that would influence payday borrowing. But, more crucial, Appendix Exhibit A8 shows the time styles in variety of loans both before and following the expansion. 16 Reassuringly, the display shows that there have been no observable differences when considering future expanding and nonexpanding counties in preexisting time styles, which validates the parallel-trends assumption that underlies our difference-in-differences approach. Particularly, when you look at the twenty-four months before Medicaid expansion, we observed no preexisting differences when you look at the quantity of pay day loans that may confound the effect that is estimated of expansion once we later compared teams. We consequently discovered no proof that the parallel trends assumption had been violated. In addition, the Appendix display implies that a negative effectation of the Medicaid expansions regarding the variety of loans started about half a year after expansion, which appears legitimate considering that medical requirements and medical bills accumulate gradually.


Medicaid expansion has enhanced use of health that is high-quality, increased making use of outpatient and inpatient medical solutions, 15 , 19 and enhanced the non-public funds of low-income adults by reducing the amount of medical bills at the mercy of business collection agencies and also by increasing fico scores. 1 this research increases the current proof of some great benefits of Medicaid expansion by showing so it reduced the utilization of payday advances in Ca.

Past research showing that Medicaid expansions resulted in substantive reductions in medical debt recommended that individuals might find a decrease in the necessity for payday borrowing following California’s expansion that is early. Certainly, our main results recommend a decrease that is large11 per cent) within the quantity of loans applied for by borrowers more youthful than age 65, and a straight bigger decrease (21 %) those types of ages 18–34. We observed an increase that is slight borrowing for the people over the age of age 65, which we discovered astonishing. We additionally discovered the decrease in payday borrowing to be focused the type of more youthful than age 50, which will be plausible considering the fact that 1 / 2 of new Medicaid enrollees in Ca in 2012–14 due to the expansion of eligibility for grownups had been more youthful than age 40, and nearly 80 % had been more youthful than age 55. 20 past research has additionally recommended that more youthful grownups would be the main beneficiaries of Medicaid expansions. 21

We had been struggling to recognize exactly how as well as for who Medicaid decreases payday borrowing. To your knowledge, there are not any data that directly link payday lending to insurance coverage status. One possibility is the fact that although a somewhat tiny share of Ca residents (approximately 8 per cent associated with the population that is low-income 22 gained coverage, the protection gain might have been disproportionately larger within the subset of low-income Ca residents very likely to frequent payday loan providers. Hence, the noticed magnitude of decreases in loan amount could merely be driven by a big modification in borrowing for county residents whom gained protection. There clearly was previous proof that California’s early Medicaid expansions reduced out-of-pocket medical investing by 10 portion points among low-income grownups. 22 Another possibility is the fact that the Medicaid expansion impacted a lot more individuals beyond those that gained protection straight. Family unit members of people that gained Medicaid protection might also have reduced their payday borrowing.